Update (2016-02-22): Developers have implemented changes to address this issue. While you won’t see the benefit of these changes immediately, it is certainly “coming soon” at this point.
I have been experiencing excessive lag on Google Chrome on Linux for a while, and I have been searching for solutions. The issue itself, has been reported in different incarnation of bug reports, including issue #424082 on Chromium bug reporting system.
Recently, it was tracked by one of the Chromium developers that some font configuration is causing an unnecessary call to fontconfig, giving it bit of a performance penalty.
Perhaps this problem wouldn’t have affected so much about western fonts, because of relatively less load involved in the system to parse western font sets (though I’d think increased CPU load would have been observed, albeit in shorter duration.)
If you are affected by this issue, you’d seen a significant lag in UI interaction, including input to the Omnibox, as well as other actions such as menus.
Unfortunately, a good number of Japanese users may have been encountering this issue, as very common fonts (at least on Linux) such as IPA fonts would have been one of fontsets that can cause this issue.
To work around, in case of KDE, you will have to install kde-config-gtk-style and change GTK styling to use fonts other than ones affected by this issue. (On Gnome, it would be gnome-tweak-tool.)
Note that you will have to restart Chrome everytime you change this setting.